By Ulrich Ellwanger
During this e-book, the writer leads the reader, step-by-step and with none complicated arithmetic, to a transparent realizing of the rules of contemporary straightforward particle physics and cosmology. He additionally addresses present and arguable questions about subject matters similar to string idea. The booklet contains gentle introductions to the theories of detailed and common relativity, and in addition classical and quantum box idea. the basic features of those innovations are understood with the aid of easy calculations; for instance, the strength of gravity as a result of the curvature of the space-time.
Also handled are the large Bang, darkish subject and darkish strength, in addition to the shortly recognized interactions of user-friendly debris: electrodynamics, the powerful and the vulnerable interactions together with the Higgs boson. eventually, the ebook sketches as but speculative theories: Grand Unification theories, supersymmetry, string conception and the assumption of extra dimensions of space-time. given that no larger mathematical or physics services is needed, the ebook is usually appropriate for school and collage scholars at the start in their experiences. pastime astronomers and different technological know-how lovers looking a deeper perception than are available in well known remedies also will relish this specific ebook.
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Additional info for From the Universe to the Elementary Particles: A First Introduction to Cosmology and the Fundamental Interactions (Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics)
4. In the case of Fig. 3 in the xy-plane, the total distance via C (the sum of the distances AC + CB ) was longer than the direct route from A to B. 10)—valid for the part AC as well as for the part CB—the proper time for the astronaut traveling via C is shorter than for the person remaining “on site” on Earth: τ AC + τ CB < τ AB ! However, the effect is numerically relevant only if t AC is of the same order of magnitude as x AC /c, that is, if the velocity of the person traveling via C is close to the speed of light c.
10) (see the next section). Then, the Universe becomes infinitely large, empty and cold. However, before that (in about five billion years) our Sun will balloon to a red giant star. 4 Inflation In fact, the practically homogeneous distribution of galaxies and the cosmic background radiation within the presently observable part of the Universe poses a puzzle. The homogeneous distribution of galaxies and the cosmic background radiation implies that the hot and compressed gas of elementary particles that the Universe consisted of at its beginning was also distributed very uniformly.
It follows that wave solutions for the metric should also be possible. These wave solutions are denoted as gravitational waves. However, gravitational waves are very difficult to generate: owing to the smallness of the gravitational constant, enormous masses have to be strongly accelerated. 4 Gravitational Waves 51 Fig. 4 Variations of distances in the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of a gravitational wave Big Bang. It is very difficult, however, to predict the amplitudes of the gravitational waves generated under these circumstances.
From the Universe to the Elementary Particles: A First Introduction to Cosmology and the Fundamental Interactions (Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics) by Ulrich Ellwanger