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Extra resources for Beer - Intelligence as Adaptative Behavior
The problem requires finding the shortest path from Madrid to Bucharest. a) What is the state space for this problem and what is its size? b) Draw the search tree resulting from breadth first search. How many nodes are expanded? c) Draw the search tree resulting from depth first search. How many nodes are expanded? c) Draw the search tree resulting from uniform cost search. How many nodes are expanded? d) Use backtracking; e) Use iterative deepening search; g) Explain each of the techniques used above gives the best result.
When they meet, a good path should be obtained. The search needs to keep track of the intersection of 2 open sets of nodes. Suppose that the search problem is such that the arcs are bidirectional. That is, if there is an operator that maps from State A to State B, there is another operator that maps from State B to State A. Many search problems have reversible arcs such as n-puzzle, path finding, path planning etc. However there are other state space search formulations, which do not have this property.
Breadth first search Step 1. Form a queue Q and set it to the initial state (for example, the Root). Step 2. 1 Determine if the first element in the Q is the goal. 1 remove the first element in Q. 2 Apply the rule to generate new state(s) (successor states). 4 Otherwise add the new state to the end of the queue. Step 3. If the goal is reached, success; else failure. The breadth first search algorithm has exponential time and space complexity. The memory requirements are actually one of the biggest problems.
Beer - Intelligence as Adaptative Behavior