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Read e-book online Ball lightning : an unsolved problem in atmospheric physics PDF

By Mark Stenhoff

ISBN-10: 0306461501

ISBN-13: 9780306461507

ISBN-10: 0306470926

ISBN-13: 9780306470929

Down comes a deluge of sonorous hail, Or prone-descending rain. Wide-rent, the clouds Pour an entire flood, and but, its flame unquenched, Th’unconquerable lightning struggles via. Ragged and fierce, or in purple whirling balls, And fires the mountains with redoubled rage. Black from the stroke, above, the smould’ring pine Stands a tragic shattered trunk; and, stretched under, a dull workforce the blasted livestock lie. James Thompson, “The Seasons” (1727) were investigating ball lightning for greater than 20 years. I released a ball lightning record in Nature in 1976 that bought around the world exposure and that i for this reason many folks wrote to me with money owed in their personal stories. inside a truly few minutes, I had amassed approximately two hundred firsthand money owed, and the dossier has persevered to develop progressively when you consider that then. numerous issues inspired me. Few of these who wrote to me had any certain foreknowledge of ball lightning on the time in their commentary. still, as soon as stories of different phenomena comparable to St. Elmo’s hearth have been eradicated, the remainder descriptions have been remarkably constant. additionally, approximately all who contacted me have been prepared to have a proof of what they'd visible and appeared completely honest

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Extra resources for Ball lightning : an unsolved problem in atmospheric physics

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Other shapes described have included ellipsoids, rings, rods, and irregular forms (Rayle 1966, Amirov, Bychkov, and Strizhev 1995). 3 Diameter Statistical surveys of ball lightning reports have given fairly consistent data concerning reported diameter, which has a modal value between 20 and 50 cm (see Figs. 3). 14), with a median value of 36 cm for his survey and 25 cm for McNally’s (1960, 1966). This log-normal relationship was supported by Dijkhuis (1992a,b). Amirov and Bychkov (1997c) found that an increase in humidity, or, to a lesser extent, an increase of electric field strength decreased both ball lightning diameter and the lifetime of the ball.

This controversy is discussed in Chapter 10. The suggestion that there is more than one type of ball lightning has not been fully incorporated into the discussion of the merits and demerits of different ball lightning models. Some authors have been very critical of the models proposed by others because they do not explain all the reported characteristics of ball lightning. Most ball lightning models set out to explain some of the following reported properties: 1. Its apparent association with thunderstorms.

They are believed to come from sources at altitudes greater than 30 km. Second, the ALEXIS satellite has observed exceptionally intense pairs of very high frequency (VHF) pulses, called transionospheric pulse pairs (TIPPS), which originate from thunderstorm regions, but which are some 10,000 times more intense than the atmospherics produced by normal lightning activity (Massey and Holden 1995, Jacobsen et al. 1998). They appear to be related to very intense VHF pulses detected at ground level (Willett, Bailey, and Krider 1989, Jacobsen et al.

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Ball lightning : an unsolved problem in atmospheric physics by Mark Stenhoff

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