By Geological Society Publications
X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a method that permits non-destructive imaging and quantification of inner positive factors of items. It used to be initially constructed as a clinical imaging strategy, however it is now additionally changing into standard for the research of fabrics in engineering and the geosciences. X-ray CT finds variations in density and atomic composition and will for that reason be used for the learn of porosity, the relative distribution of contrasting stable levels and the penetration of injected recommendations. As a non-destructive process, it truly is very best for tracking of strategies, corresponding to the stream of recommendations and the behaviour of fabrics less than compression. simply because huge numbers of parallel two-dimensional cross-sections will be bought, three-d representations of chosen positive aspects will be created. during this publication, numerous purposes of X-ray CT within the geosciences are illustrated through papers masking quite a lot of disciplines, together with petrology, soil technological know-how, petroleum geology, geomechanics and sedimentology.
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Additional info for Applications of X-ray computed tomography in the geosciences
This is not the case, however, with diffusive transport processes. Recent work showed how CT imaging could be used to measure diffusion coefficients of ions in watersaturated rocks and clays (Nakashima 2000). So far the technique is limited to relatively heavy ions, such as iodine, whose mass attenuation coefficient is large. Extension to other and perhaps lighter ions could provide advantages over other conventional laboratory techniques for measuring ion diffusion coefficients. Image processing remains an area where progress could be made.
Then, normalizing by the difference in CT numbers between fully water- and oil-saturated rock gives the fraction of the pore space filled with water and scales quantities to lie between 0 and 1. Types of error Measurements with X-ray CT are subject to a variety of errors and image artefacts including beam hardening, star-shaped or so-called X-artefacts, positioning errors, and machine errors. These are discussed briefly (see also Van Geet et al. 2001). The majority of CT scanners were developed for medical purposes and were originally intended for qualitative imaging and not for quantitative analysis.
US Department of Energy, National Petroleum Technology, Tulsa, Oklahoma, Report SUPRITR 107. J. S. 1996. Verification of Buckley-Leverett three-phase theory using computerized tomography. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 15, 1—21. W. M. 1994. Synchrotron computed microtomography of porous media: topology and transport. Physical Review Letters, 73, 2001-2004. M. L. 1991. CT-scan-monitored electrical-resistivity measurements show problems achieving homogeneous saturation. Society of Petroleum Engineers Formation Evaluation, 6, 134-140.
Applications of X-ray computed tomography in the geosciences by Geological Society Publications