By John Braithwaite, Valerie Braithwaite, Michael Cookson, Leah Dunn
Indonesia suffered an explosion of spiritual violence, ethnic violence, separatist violence, terrorism, and violence by means of felony gangs, the protection forces and militias within the past due Nineteen Nineties and early 2000s. via 2002 Indonesia had the worst terrorism challenge of any state. a lot of these different types of violence have now fallen dramatically. How used to be this finished? What drove the increase and the autumn of violence? Anomie conception is deployed to provide an explanation for those advancements. unexpected institutional switch on the time of the Asian monetary problem and the autumn of President Suharto intended the principles of the sport have been up for grabs. Valerie Braithwaite’s motivational postures thought is used to give an explanation for the gaming of the foundations and the disengagement from authority that happened in that period. eventually resistance to Suharto laid a origin for dedication to a revised, extra democratic, institutional order. The peacebuilding that happened was once now not according to the high-integrity truth-seeking and reconciliation that used to be the normative choice of those authors. quite it was once in line with non-truth, occasionally lies, and but colossal reconciliation. This poses a problem to restorative justice theories of peacebuilding.
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Extra info for Anomie and violence : non-truth and reconciliation in Indonesian peacebuilding
The source of anomie in many parts of Indonesia from the late 1990s was the collapse of Suharto’s New Order in conditions of uncertainty created by the Asian financial crisis. ’ The Indonesian state under Sukarno and Suharto sowed seeds of this normative flux by valorizing militias and vigilantes in defence of the ‘nation’ by its use of imagery of Pattimura and other guerrilla heroes from the struggle against Dutch colonialism (Cookson 2008). In some contexts of anomie, including many of those described in the chapters that follow, violence becomes an effective form of competition.
Beyond terrorism, we look back with amazement at vividly filmic battles that were not reported by the international media, in which thousands of Muslim fighters were arrayed against Christian ‘armies’ led by pastors leading the faithful into battle singing Onward Christian Soldiers. Beneath the surface during these terrible seven post-Suharto years, Indonesia was really renewing itself rather than disintegrating. We will see that a corrupt, violent and anti-democratic military was at the heart of Indonesia’s problems during this period—and still is today.
We argue that punitive military force almost always has a deterrent effect and almost always has a defiance effect, which runs in the opposite direction. The deterrent effect of the deployment of force reduces future violence; the defiance effect increases it. Our interviews with many combatants in Papua and Aceh clearly suggest deterrence and defiance effects have been in play in both places; it is just that the deterrence effects were less and the defiance effects greater in Aceh (at least until 2004) for the reasons outlined above.
Anomie and violence : non-truth and reconciliation in Indonesian peacebuilding by John Braithwaite, Valerie Braithwaite, Michael Cookson, Leah Dunn