By Koen Lampaert
Analog built-in circuits are extremely important as interfaces among the electronic components of built-in digital platforms and the skin international. a wide section of the hassle interested in designing those circuits is spent within the format part. while the actual layout of electronic circuits is automatic to a wide volume, the structure of analog circuits remains to be a guide, time-consuming and error-prone job. this can be normally because of the non-stop nature of analog signs, which factors analog circuit functionality to be very delicate to format parasitics. The parasitic parts linked to interconnect wires reason loading and coupling results that degrade the frequency behaviour and the noise functionality of analog circuits. machine mismatch and thermal results placed a primary restrict at the feasible accuracy of circuits. For winning automation of analog format, complicated position and direction instruments that may deal with those serious parasitics are required.
some time past, computerized analog format instruments attempted to optimize the format with out quantifying the functionality degradation brought through format parasitics. for this reason, it used to be now not assured that the ensuing structure met the requirements and a number of structure iterations might be wanted. In Analog structure new release for functionality andManufacturability, the authors suggest a functionality pushed format technique to conquer this challenge. during this method, the format instruments are pushed via functionality constraints, such that the ultimate format, with parasitic results, nonetheless satisfies the standards of the circuit. The functionality degradation linked to an intermediate format resolution is evaluated at runtime utilizing predetermined sensitivities. by contrast with different functionality pushed format methodologies, the instruments proposed during this booklet function at once at the functionality constraints, with no an intermediate parasitic constraint iteration step. This strategy makes an entire and good trade-off among different structure choices attainable at runtime and hence removes the prospective suggestions path among constraint derivation, placement and format extraction.
along with its impact at the functionality, format additionally has a profound effect at the yield and testability of an analog circuit. In AnalogLayout new release for functionality and Manufacturability, the authors define a brand new criterion to quantify the detectability of a fault and mix this with a yield version to judge the testability of an built-in circuit structure. They then combine this system with their functionality pushed routing set of rules to provide layouts that experience optimum manufacturability whereas nonetheless assembly their functionality requisites.
Analog structure iteration for functionality and Manufacturability may be of curiosity to analog engineers, researchers and students.
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Additional resources for Analog Layout Generation for Performance and Manufacturability
Their values are specified by the foundry and can not be controlled by the designer. Examples of process parameters are the Kp and the Vro of a MOS transistor. 3. Layout Parasitics In general, a layout parasitic can be defined as every cause of performance degradation which is not intended by the circuit designer and whose value is determined by the layout of the circuit. Examples are the parasitic capacitance of a circuit node, or the coupli'ng capacitance between two circuit wires. Due to parametric fluctuations in the manufacturing process, the process and to some extent also the design parameters are statistical in nature and have to be treated as random variables with a distribution function.
Tools developed within the framework of this research are shown in straight lines, commercial tools that have been integrated in dashed lines. The input of the tool set consists of three files: 1. netlist file The netlist describing the circuit for which the layout has to be designed. This can be a device level netlist, or an architecture of higher level blocks. 6 Overview of the Analog Layout Tool LAYLA 19 2. specification file A file with the specifications for the circuit. 3. technology file A file describing the process technology.
McNu 94] discusses various systematic capacitance matching errors and corrective layout procedures. Additional information can also be found in [Laker-Sansen 94]. 42 Performance Driven Layout of Analog Integrated Circuits • Same Structure Matching devices should have the same structure. For instance, a poly-poly capacitor can not be matched with a metal-poly capacitor. Due to the large spreading on the absolute values of process parameters, they can never be used to design predictable device parameter ratios.
Analog Layout Generation for Performance and Manufacturability by Koen Lampaert