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AI in the 1980s and Beyond: An MIT Survey - download pdf or read online

By William Eric Leifur Grimson, Ramesh S. Patil

ISBN-10: 0262071061

ISBN-13: 9780262071062

This selection of essays by way of 12 individuals of the MIT employees, offers an within document at the scope and expectancies of present learn in a single of the world's significant AI facilities. The chapters on man made intelligence, professional structures, imaginative and prescient, robotics, and typical language offer either a large review of present parts of task and an review of the sphere at a time of significant public curiosity and speedy technological growth. Contents: man made Intelligence (Patrick H. Winston and Karen Prendergast). KnowledgeBased structures (Randall Davis). Expert-System instruments and methods (Peter Szolovits). clinical analysis: Evolution of platforms development services (Ramesh S. Patil). man made Intelligence and software program Engineering (Charles wealthy and Richard C. Waters). clever typical Language Processing (Robert C. Berwick). automated Speech acceptance and knowing (Victor W. Zue). robotic Programming and synthetic Intelligence (Tomas Lozano-Perez). robotic arms and Tactile Sensing (John M. Hollerbach). clever imaginative and prescient (Michael Brady). Making Robots See (W. Eric L. Grimson). self reliant cellular Robots (Rodney A. Brooks). W. Eric L. Grimson, writer of From photographs to Surfaces: A Computational learn of the Human Early imaginative and prescient method (MIT Press 1981), and Ramesh S. Patil are either Assistant Professors within the division of electric Engineering and computing device technology at MIT. AI within the Nineteen Eighties and past is incorporated within the synthetic Intelligence sequence, edited by way of Patrick H. Winston and Michael Brady.

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This is a much simplified version of how such programs work, but it gives a general sense of their operation. Real systems typically have consid­ erably more sophisticated ways of generating and evaluating hypotheses, dealing with interactions between hypotheses, etc. Roles, Successes and Limitations Names can at times be problematic and that has been the case when these systems are referred to as expert systems. The term conjures up a wide variety of expectations about performance and role, for example.

PERSON I MACHINE I Figure 9. The spectrum of roles for a knowledge-based system. The important point is that there are extensive pragmatic benefits at every point along that spectrum. The system need not be as good as an expert to be useful; even an intelligent assistant can be of great utility. Such a system can serve to offioad routine cases, freeing up a human expert's time to focus on the more difficult and challenging problems. It in effect becomes an "intelligence amplifier" , allowing us to use the scarce resource of the expert's time in a much more effective manner.

The fruits of such 52 Peter Szolovits labors were the earliest expert system tools, such as EMYCIN [van Melle 81]. The intellectual and practical claim of such a system is that, based on past experience, it provides a useful organization of knowledge and an appropriate problem-solving method. Thus, to build a new application it is only necessary to express the domain knowledge of the new task in that system's formalism and then the built-in problem-solving techniques will apply to generate intelligent behavior for the new task.

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AI in the 1980s and Beyond: An MIT Survey by William Eric Leifur Grimson, Ramesh S. Patil

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