By G. Thomas
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Additional info for Advances in Water Treatment and Environmental Management
If only acute (short term) LC50 values are available, an arbitrary safety factor of 100 is usually applied. This factor tends to be reduced to 10 if chronic LC50 data are available for sensitive species. For some substances, ‘no effects concentrations’ (NOEC) are reported for long-term chronic studies. These values may be used as tentative standards without applying a safety factor, provided the test design is acceptable, and that they refer to relevant species and are supported by the other data available.
It is not surprising therefore that difficulties in applying such standards stir up the true debate, the political one: who can and should take action ? who should pay ? what is the priority action to be taken ? With a view to protecting the quality of drinking water, regulations have ben drawn up for the protection of groundwater and surface water catchment sites. They include the installation of different protective perimeters round the intake areas. However, these measures are not always easy to implement.
Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. EC 1975: Council Directive 75/440/EEC. Quality required of surface water intended for the abstraction of drinking water. Official Journal No. 1975, p34. EC 1980: Council Directive 80/778/EEC. Relating to the quality of water intended for human consumption. Official Journal No. HMSO 1989a: Water Act 1989. Chapter 15. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. 1147. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London. HMSO 1989c: The Water Supply (Water Quality) (Amendment) Regulations 1989 Statutory Instrument No.
Advances in Water Treatment and Environmental Management by G. Thomas