By Mohan Seneviratne
And trade use enormous quantities of water, and in a few components of the realm water is turning into a scarce commodity. This booklet is a 'best perform' guide for water conservation for commercial and advertisement clients world-wide. It deals a realistic account of the measures that are taken to re-educate business and advertisement clients within the thoughts of water saving and re-use - wherever on the planet.
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Additional resources for A Practical Approach to Water Conservation for Commercial and Industrial Facilities
Hard water is difﬁcult to lather and therefore hardness is a measure of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions. Calcium typically accounts for two-thirds of total hardness in surface water and is usually in the range of 2–200 mg/L as Ca. Sea water may contain as much as 400 mg/L as Ca . The typical concentration for Mg2+ in surface water is about 10–50 mg/L as Mg. However, in well and in sea water Mg2+ can be about four to ﬁve times that of Ca2+ . Hardness is typically expressed as mg/L CaCO3 . Most common Ca2+ and Mg2+ salts are bicarbonates, sulphates, chlorides and nitrates.
Despite the low concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, due to its higher solubility (about 30 times that of oxygen), it plays a major role in water chemistry. Alkalinity is a measure of the buffering capacity of water or the capacity of bases such as carbonates to neutralise acids. CO2 dissolves in water to form carbonic acid H2 CO3 decreasing the pH and increasing the acidity of the water. 5 and below, all CO2 is in the form of H2 CO3 and no alkalinity is present. 5, H2 CO3 is present in the form of bicarbonates HCO3 and carbonates CO3 .
Greenleaf Publishing. 2002. 1 Overview Before we delve into water conservation, it is useful to have an understanding of the basic concepts in water chemistry and ions commonly found in water. Water is known as the universal solvent due to its power to dissolve virtually all substances to some extent. The key to this phenomenal ability is its structure. The water molecule consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen with a slight positive charge near the hydrogen atoms and a slight negative charge near the oxygen atom.
A Practical Approach to Water Conservation for Commercial and Industrial Facilities by Mohan Seneviratne